Cable Glossary

ABRASION - The destruction of a material caused by scraping or rubbing against a rough, hard surface.

ABRASION RESISTANCE - The ability of a wire or cable jacket to resist surface wear.

AC - Abbreviation for alternating current. See alternating current.

AMP - Abbreviation for ampere. See Ampere.
AMPACITY - See current carrying capacity.
AMPERE - The unit expressing the rate of flow of an electrical current. One ampere is the current flowing through one ohm resistance with one volt potential.

ANALOG - Being or relative to a mechanism in which data is represented by continuously varying physical quantities. Opposite - digital.
ANNEALED WIRE - Wire which has been softened by heating and gradually cooling. Also called soft drawn wire.
ANODE - Positive pole of an electric source. Opposite - cathode.
ANSI - Abbreviation for American National Standards Institute. A federation of trade, technical, professional organizations, government agencies, and consumer groups. Coordinates standards development and publishes standards. Operates a voluntary certification program. Used to be called the American Standards Association (ASA).

ASME - Abbreviation for American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASTM - Abbreviation for American Society for Testing Materials. An organization that tests materials and attempts to set standards on various materials for industry.
ATTENUATION - The loss of power or signal in a circuit, generally expressed in decibels (dB) per unit length, attenuation is the ratio of input power vs. output power, measured in decibels per unit length, usually dB/km.

AWG - Abbreviation for American Wire Gauge.

AWM - Designation for appliance wiring material. 

BREAKDOWNVOLTAGE - The voltage at which the insulation between two conductors breaks down.
BREAKING STRENGTH - The maximum load that a conductor can withstand when tested in tension to rupture

CABLE - a) A cable may be a small number of large conductors or a large number of small conductors, cabled together, usually color coded and with a protective jacket overall.
CABLE ASSEMBLY - A cable assembly is a cable with plugs or connectors on each end for a specific purpose. It may be formed in various configurations.
CABLE CORE – Insulated Conductor is called as core.
CABLE FILLER - The material used in multi-conductor cables to occupy the spaces formed by the assembly  to make the cable in round shape.

CAPACITANCE - Capacitance is that property of a system of conductors and dielectrics which permits the storage of electricity when potential differences exist between the conductors. The value depends largely on the surface area of the plates, distance between them, and the composition of the medium between the plates.

CAPACITANCE, DIRECT - The capacitance measured directly from conductor to conductor through a single insulating layer.

CAPACITANCE, MUTUAL - The capacitance between two conductors with all other conductors, including shield, short-circuited to ground.

           CATHODE - Negative pole of an electric source. Opposite - anode.

COMPOSITE CABLE - A cable consisting of two or more different types or sizes of wire and/or cable.

COMPOUND - An insulating or jacketing material made by the chemical union of two or more ingredients.

CONCENTRIC STRANDING - A central wire or core surrounded by one or more layers of helically wound strands in a fixed round geometric arrangement. Generally each layer, after the first, has six more strands than the preceding layer and is applied in a direction opposite to that of the layer under it.

CONCENTRICITY - In a wire or cable, the measurement of the location of the center of the conductor with respect to the geometric center of the surrounding insulation.

COPPER-CLAD - Steel wire with a coating of copper welded to it, as distinguished from copper-plated. Abbreviated CCS.

db - Abbreviation for decibel(s). See decibel.

db LOSS - The loss of signal over a path or conductor, expressed in decibels.

DC - Abbreviation for direct current. See direct current. Also abbreviated dc.

DENSITY - The distribution of a quantity (as mass, electricity, or energy) per unit, usually of space.

DESIGN VOLTAGE - Voltage at which a cable is designed for maximum work.

DIELECTRIC - Any insulating material that is a nonconductor of electricity. 

DIELECTRIC CONSTANT - The factor by which the electric field strength in a vacuum exceeds that in the dielectric for the same distribution of charge. Symbol K. The K for air is 1.0.

DIGITAL - Of or relating to calculation by numerical methods or by discrete units. Opposite - analog.

DOUBLE SHIELD - Two shields, one over the other. Maximum coverage is 98%.

DUPLEX - Two conductors twisted together, usually with no outer covering.

EARTH FAULT - A fault that occurs when a conductor is accidentally connected to earth or when the resistance to earth of an insulator falls below a specific value.

ELASTOMER - A rubberlike substance.

FLAME-RESISTANCE - The ability of a material not to propagate flame once the heat source is removed.

FLUOROPOLYMER - Insulations or jackets char- acterized by the presence of fluorine in the formula- tion.

FLAMMABILITY - The measure of a material’s ability to support combustion. 

IEC - Abbreviation for International Electrotechnical
Commission, similar to the International Standards Organization (ISO).  

IEEE - Abbreviation for Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers.

IMPEDANCE - A measure of the response of an electric circuit to an alternating current. Measured in ohms (volts per ampere). Symbol Z. The current is opposed by the capacitance and inductance of the circuit in addition to the resistance. The total opposition to current flow is the impedance, 

INSULATION - That portion which is relied upon in a cable to segregate and protect the conductor from the other conductors, conducting parts, or from ground.

INSULALATION RESISTANCE - The resistance offered by an insulating material to the flow of current resulting from an impressed DC voltage.

IRRADIATION - In insulations, the exposure of the material to high energy emissions for the purpose of favorably altering the molecular structure by cross-linking.

ISO - Abbreviation for International Standards Organization.

ISO 9000 - An international quality assurance program. 

JACKET - A covering over insulation usually nonmetallic, plastic, rubber, cotton, , fluoropolymers glass etc.

JUMPER - Usually a temporary connection. A short length of conductor to connect between terminals, across a break in a circuit,

kV - Abbreviation for kilovolt (1,000 volts).

kVA - Abbreviation for kilovolt ampere (1,000 volt ampere).

kW - Abbreviation for kilowatt (1,000 watts).

LAY - The length measured along the axis of a wire or cable required for a single strand (in stranded wire) or conductor (in cable) to make one complete turn around the axis of the conductor or cable

LEAKAGE - The passage of an electric current along a path other than that intended due to faulty insulation or isolation in a circuit, component, device, or other piece of apparatus.

LONGITUDINAL SHIELD - A tape shield, flat or corrugated, applied longitudinally with the axis of the core being shielded.

LOOP RESISTANCE - The total resistance of two conductors measured round-trip from one end.

NICKEL-CLAD COPPER WIRE - A wire with a layer of nickel on a copper core where the area of the nickel is approximately 30% of the conductor area. The nickel has been rolled and fused to the copper before drawing. It has a very high resistivity and can operate at extremely high temperatures. Abbreviated NCC and NC.

NYLON - A group of polyamide polymers which are used for wire and cable jacketing. Mechanical and chemical protection 105° C.

O.D. - Abbreviation for outside diameter.

OEM - Abbreviation for Original Equipment Manufacturer.

OSHA - Abbreviation for Occupational Safety and Health Act.

OUTGASSING - The dissipation of gas from a dielectric evidencing decomposition.

OXYGEN INDEX - Percentage of oxygen necessary to support combustion of a specified material.

PAIR - Two insulated wires of a single circuit associated together.

PAIRING - The union of two insulated single conductors through twisting.

POLYMER - A material of high molecular weight formed by the chemical union on monomers.

PULLING EYE - A device on the end of a cable to which a pulling line is attached for pulling the cable into a conduit or duct.

RATED TEMPERATURE - The maximum temperature at which an electric component can operate for extended periods without loss of its basic properties.

RATED VOLTAGE - The maximum voltage at which an electric component can operate for extended periods without undue degradation or safety hazard.

REACTANCE - The part of the total impedance of a circuit not due to pure resistance, measured in ohms. Symbol X. It is the imaginary part of the complex impedance, Z 

RESIN - A solid or semi-solid organic substance, originally of plant origin but largely synthesized now. It may be clear, yellowish, or brown, ranging from transparent to translucent

RESISTANCE - The tendency of a material to resist the passage of an electric current and to convert electrical energy into heat energy. 

RESISTIVITY - An intrinsic property of a material equal to the resistance per unit length and unit cross sectional area. Reciprocal of conductivity. The lower the resistivity of a material the better conductor it is. Materials can be classified as conductors, semi-conductors, or insulators according to their resistivity. 

RoHS - RoHS is the acronym for Restriction of Hazardous Substances. RoHS, also known as Directive 2002/95/EC, originated in the European Union and restricts the use of specific hazardous materials found in electrical and electronic products. All applicable products in the EU market after July 1, 2006 must pass RoHS compliance. For the complete directive, see Directive 2002/95/EC of the European Parliament. The substances banned under RoHS are lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), hexavalent chromium (CrVI), polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE).

SCCS - Abbreviation for silver-covered copper-clad steel. Also abbreviated as SCS.

SCHSCA - Silver-coated high strength copper alloy.

SELF-EXTINGUISHING - The characteristic of a material whose flame is extinguished after the igniting flame is removed.

SHIELD - In cables, a metallic layer placed around a conductor or group of conductors to prevent electrostatic or electromagnetic interference between the enclosed wires and external fields.

SHIELD COVERAGE (PERCENTAGE) - The physical area of a cable that is actually covered by the shielding material and is expressed in percent.

SINTERED - Usually refers to curing of PTFE. To cause to become a coherent mass by heating without melting.

SPOOL - Circular container on which wire is wound for storage or transit, usually made of plastic, plywood  or metal.

STRAND - A single uninsulated wire.

TANK TESEST - A voltage dielectric test in which the test sample is submerged in water and voltage is applied between the conductor and water as ground.

TEFLON® - Teflon® is DuPont de trade name for their family of fluorocarbon resins including Teflon® TFE (tetrafluoroethylene), Teflon® FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene), and Teflon® PFA (perfluoroalkoxy). See tetrafluorethylene and perfluoroalkoxy.

TEFLON® IMPREGNATED - Refers to the saturation of a heat resistant fibrous glass braid with Teflon® suspension. After saturation, the Teflon® is cured. Teflon® is a trademark of the DuPont

TEFZEL® - Trademark of the DuPont de Numerous Co. Abbreviation ETFE. See ethylene tetrafluoroethylene.

THERMOCOUPLE - A union of dissimilar metals in which a voltage is generated due to a change in temperature. The voltage is usually in micro or milli volts.

THERMOCOUPLE  WIRE - An insulated pair of wires used from the couple to a junction box or to the recording instrument.

THERMOCOUPLE CONDUCTOR - Wire drawn from special metals or alloys and calibrated to established specifications such as for the U.S. Bureau of Standards or Instruments Society of American standards.

THERMOPLASTIC - A material which softens when heated and becomes firm on cooling.

THERMOSET - A material which hardens or sets when heat is applied, and which, once set, cannot be re-softened by heating. The application of heat is called “curing”.

TOLERANCE - a) The allowable deviation from a standard especially value  b) The variance between the quantity ordered and the quantity shipped, generally accepted in the wire industry to be plus or minus 10%.

TWINAX - A shielded coaxial cable with two central conductors. Also called twinaxial.

TWISTED PAIR - Two insulated conductors twisted together without a common covering. 

UL APPROVED - A product that has been tested and approved to Underwriters Laboratories standards.

UNILAY CONDUCTOR - A central core surrounded by one or more concentric layers of helically wound strands in a fixed geometrical arrangement with the direction of lay the same for each layer and the central core.

UNSINTERED - Means uncured. This word is usually used to differentiate between cured and uncured PTFE tape.

UV - Abbreviation for ultraviolet. 

VOLTAGE - The term most often used in place of electromotive force, potential, potential difference, or voltage drop to designate the electric pressure that exists between two points and is capable of producing a current when a close circuit is connected between two points.

VOLTAGE BREAKDOWN - A test to determine maximum voltage of insulated wire before electrical current leakage through insulation occurs.

VOLTAGE RATING - The highest voltage which may be applied to a wire or cord for continuous service in conformance with the governing standards or specifications.

VOLUME RESISTIVITY (SPECIFIC INSULATION RESISTANCE) - The electrical resistance between opposite faces of a 1 centimeter cube of insulating material, commonly expressed in ohms per centimeter.

WIRE - A slender rod or filament of drawn metal. The term is a generally used one, which may refer to any single conductor..

WIRE BRAID - Flexible wire constructed of small size strands woven together in tubular form. Used for shielding or connections where constant flexing is required.

WIRE GAUGE - The American Wire Gauge. A system of numerical wire sizes starting with the lowest numbers for the largest sizes.

WALL THICKNESS - Refers to insulation thickness or jacket thickness that has been applied.

WATER ABSORPTION - A test to determine the water absorbed by a material after a given immersion period.

2XWY.-  XLPE Insulated Round wire Armoured Cable


2XFY.-  XLPE Insulated Flat strip wire Armoured Cable

YWY.- PVC Insulated Round wire Armoured Cable

YFY.-  PVC Insulated Flat strip wire Armoured Cable

YY.-  PVC Insulated & PVC sheathed Unarmoured Cable

ZHFR: Zero Halogen flame retardant